From the skin to the heart, through the brain

AR|THE (Aroma Therapy) is a functional cosmetics project applying the principles of Aromatherapy to skin treatments, thereby proving beneficial to mind, soul, and spirit thanks to a holistic approach.


AR|THE is a new concept of cosmetology conceived of as a true science providing mounting evidence that mind and skin are mutually connected, and that beauty can only be achieved when sustained by a holistic approach to skin, mind, and cell body through a sensory journey which, scientifically applicable to anyone, must reckon with every individual’s uniqueness.

AR|THE is a project embodying a scientific approach where research and tradition go hand in hand; in the case in point, it translates into a manual about the application on the skin of essential oil blends developed to the aim of performing biological activities at skin, psychosomatic and soul level.

The connection between traditional cosmetics and holism translates into a recently introduced concept known as NEUROCOSMETICS.

Today the concept of neurocosmetics perfectly interacts with AROMACOSMETICS.


Foundations underlying the “Cosmetics of happiness”

It has always been claimed that external beauty mirrors our inner well-being and when we are well, we feel more attractive.

In this regard, neurocosmetics, also known as the cosmetics of happiness, accomplishes a major goal. Neurocosmetics, in fact, encompasses products capable of connecting the senses with the central nervous system, while both effectively combating skin blemishes and enhancing mood.

It has long been known that Skin and Spirit, Mind and Skin are closely and mutually tied by their common origin: in fact, they both emerge from a single sheet of cells known as the ectoderm.

This is the reason why the skin has been defined: “the reverse side of the nervous system”. Undoubtedly it comes as no surprise that there exists a close relationship between the skin and the nervous system. The skin and the brain develop in the fetus from the same stem cells and their differentiation develops from the same embryonic sheet, namely the ectoderm.

Neuroscience studies are also harnessed for enhancing communication between the nervous system and the skin. With advancing age, the skin’s ability to respond to stimuli diminishes. Said studies count on the presence of olfactory and gustatory receptors found on the skin. For this reason, the products that significantly impact the nervous system may have a great potential by taking global care instead of targeting the skin symptom only.

Neurocosmetic products are formulated with active ingredients that share structural similarities with the endogeneous neuromediators (substances produced by the human body) appointed to regulate the main cutaneous functions the action of which they mimick by binding with the receptors found on the skin cells with the aim to improve appearance and reduce blemishes.

Besides crucially contributing to skin health, neurocosmetic products manufactured in keeping with these principles can successfully connect with the skin-brain system while also arousing specific sensations (such as pleasure and well-being), through the interaction with the receptors found on the skin cells.

Based on the findings of neuroscience studies, neurocosmetics investigates how to unlock given emotions through the usage of cosmetic products. For instance, latest-generation night creams contain substances that can ameliorate the quality of sleep and, consequently, work as mood enhancers.

The chief characteristic underlying the active ingredients used by neurocosmetics is meant to boost the production of dopamin and serotonin and, hence, positively impact mood. Mostly vegetal, when the ingredients penetrate the skin, they improve its appearance and arouse pleasant sensations as well.

Among the key ingredients recommended for the development of a neurocosmetic project, essential oils stand out for their excellent percutaneous absorption and remarkable diffusion properties.

History of Aromatherapy

Although the use of essential oils dates back to as early as ancient Egypt, their employment as phyto-complexes recognized to have therapeutic and cosmetic properties is relatively recent.

The term aromatherapy was first introduced in the Thirties by René-Maurice Gattefossè (Lyon, 1881- Casablanca, 1950), one of the first French cosmetologists, who realised the benefits essential oils would deliver in treating some skin conditions, first and foremost infectious skin disorders. Encouraged by the pioneering studies carried out by the scholar, pundits like doctor Maury, Paul Belaiche and professors Valnet and Rovesti gained a lot of attention. Moreover, Rovesti extensively investigated the amazing effects essential oils would ensure for dermatological and cosmetic purposes, also through the modulation of the nervous system.

As far as aromatherapy is concerned, Japan has long been renowned for its established scientific research. Kazunaga Kawabata, a physician based in Osaka, is regarded as a pioneer in this field. As a matter of fact, Kawabata was the first who harnessed the relaxing properties of a few essential oils for relieving the tension of women in labour, thus sparing newborns the potential iatrogenic effects caused by sedative and relaxing drugs. Thanks to the effectiveness this method proved to have on pregnant women, he subsequently expanded his research and investigated the effects of aromatherapy in treating menopause disorders. Later on, research and trials confirmed the full range of solutions aromatherapy has in store: promoting weight loss in spite of not dieting (thanks to a protein involved in fat metabolism), boosting concentration (with the aid of cinnamon and mint essential oils), and improving memory retention (aided by essential oils extracted from orange, lavender, rosemary). Moreover, a few essential oils like camphor mugworth, cajeput, grapefruit and myrtle (ref.) have proven to have either anorexigenic effects and are therefore used as slimming aids or, conversely, to stimulate appetite such as basil, cinnamon, sage, oregano, clove and nutmeg.

As for their soothing effects, scientific literature testifies to the calming, sedative properties of several essential oils like lavandula angustifolia (true lavender), melissa officinale (lemon balm) and camomilla romana (Roman chamomile), whereas today essential oils like cinnamon, rosemary, thyme and citrus are being recognized to have potentials activating the central nervous system.

In other words, because aromas and essential oils have been found to have a great many biological effects, aromatherapy offers a truly broad, multi-faceted range of applications:

  • Treating skin conditions such as dermatitis, acne, eczema, psoriasis, cellulite, varicose veins.
  • Promoting emotional recovery in patients affected with depression, hysteria, panic attacks
  • Calming the mind in the event of sleep disorders/insomnia
  • Treating burns, bruises, pulled muscles, cold and flu symptoms, asthma, bronchitis, muscle pain and skin inflammation
  • Favouring the digestive system

The benefits deriving from aromatherapy treatments reside in the fact that, besides being constituted by molecules individually performing biological activities of their own (ligand-receptor binding), essential oils often perform a multi-target, synergistic action on the human being, with a tropism involving organs, systems as well as glands and the nervous system (central and neurovegetative). For this reason, some maintain they can be estimated to act on three levels: body, mind and soul.

The curative approach

Accordingly, the curative approach of Aromatherapists is grounded on the person’s overall conditions, while assessing and focusing on clinical and family records as well as emotional and neurovegetative conditions (a predominantly sympathicotonic or parasympathicotonic ground), health state and lifestyle with a mind to designing or choosing a treatment meant to be both biologically and psychologically effective. The treatment is thus estimated to act more thoroughly and deeply than the prescription of a synthetic compound preventing the organism from being treated globally.

The mechanism of action is correlated to the close bond with the cortical areas of the CNS, such as the frontal, prefrontal and piriform cortex (a region in the brain the function of which relates to the smell sense), the limbic system (the centre of emotions, memory, pleasure and fulfillment and the deep structure of character).

Not only does the usage of essential oils prove to be extremely versatile in medical sciences but in modern cosmetology too. As a matter of fact, they come in formulations like creams, gels and lipo-gels, oleolytes which convey a balanced action as essential oils are constituted by non-polar or moderately polar structures which, as such, would cross the corneal layer of the epidermis and the underlying structures of the skin too quickly with sometimes significantly negative biological effecsts.

For this reason, it is necessary to study essential oils alongside their complex compositions in order to create blends fit to promote a synergistic communication or, even better, to harmoniously take care of body, soul and psyche through the skin.

One may wonder why it is sometimes necessary creating blends instead of using a single, pure essential oil. The answer resides in the fact that a holistically developed blend can ensure the multi-target action required to achieve the desired biological effect, while respecting the nervous and metabolic balance of the people treated, namely their modulation, so as to make sure their conditions receive a broad-spectrum treatment. Oil blends are created on the basis of every ingredient’s intrinsic and “extrinsic” characteristics (that is to say according to the other ingredients in the mix).

Intrinsic encompasses chemical composition, vegetal organs it is extracted from, type of plant (shrub, grass, tree), note (top, middle, base) and finally the energy message it conveys (key word).

By extrinsic we mean the harmonisation with the phyto-complex of molecules found in the blend.

Cosmetic Aromatherapy

We will now discuss the dermal application of essential oil blends developed to the aim of performing a subtle and psychosomatic biological dermal activity.

That essential oils play an important role in skin care is something ancient Egyptians, Babylonians and time-honoured medical schools were perfectly aware of, yet the most interesting aspect is their application for psychosomatic purposes.

Remember that essential oils are part of the secondary metabolites the plant produces for several aims: fight, protection, adaptation, attraction, repulsion.

Processes for extracting essential oils (regulated by ISO and Eu.Ph. VII ed.) envisage steam is passed through the plant (steam distillation) supposed to physically drag the low-boiling structures of the essence plants across its flow. Subsequently the blend volatile molecules/water steam must be condensed and split in essential oil and demineralized aromatic water. From stable to volatile, from thick to thin, a quintessence is obtained, namely the soul and spirit of the plant. It can thus be claimed that essential oils originate from an alchemic process which can be summed up as follows: separating thin from thick. Because every plant has an olfactory profile of its own, every essential oil has a one-of-a-kind character and healing properties of its own depending on the part of the plant it is extracted from.

The therapeutic properties of essential oils in pharmacology are also the foundation of their peculiar, wide-ranging action in aromacosmetics, the branch of aromatherapy that taps into the ability of essential oils to penetrate the tissues for creating beauty treatments which, other than acting merely on the skin surface, consistently correct or improve cellular functions and cellular exchanges. A great many scientific studies have investigated the single components of oils such as monoterpenes, di-triterpenes, alcohols, acids, ethers, esters, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, sulphur and nitrogen compounds, sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids and oils overall which attest the therapeutic action these magic ingredients perform on the skin.

We have clarified that the part of the plant the oil is extracted from plays a crucial role vis-à-vis the action it performs physically, psychically and emotionally: herbs are fast, change quickly; leaves/needles are the most aerial, easily changing part; seeds fulfill two major functions, namely the propagation and survival of the species; fruits grow into flowers and protect the seed; responsible for reproduction, flowers seduce and attract; woods sustain and connect; barks and pods hold and open up to the energy flow; roots anchor and nourish; resins repair, protect and heal.

The top/middle/base note of essential oils defines the volatility or persistence of the oil either applied or diffused and, first and foremost, epitomises the action speed and duration. While a top note acts fast and its action is short-lived, the action of a base note takes longer to be triggered but is longer-lasting.

Besides treating occasional minor conditions such as lesions, wounds and sores, the antiseptic properties of essential oils also perform a disinfecting action meant to relieve the skin from microinfections causing pimples, eczema and skin infections. The combination of the cytophilactic, bioactivating and leucotactic properties of essential oils is responsible for stimulating exhausted tissues, promoting cellular growth and, aided by a greater amount of leukocytes, ensuring the defense mechanism skin structures can put in place. The toning function on the circulatory system (pharmacologically speaking: hyperemizing) triggers off an anti-toxic mechanism detoxifying the tissues from wastes and toxins generated by the cellular metabolism. In this regard, a great many other examples could be mentioned which testify to the multiple actions performed by essential oils.

Due to their very structural characteristics, essential oils rapidly cross the corneocyte barrier, the protective hydrolipidic film and, thanks to their non-polarity, reach into the subcutaneous layer.


The foundations of Chrono Cosmetics are rooted in the extensive study of Chronobiology, a branch of Biology investigating the Biological Rhythms of our organism and its adaptation to the alternation of day and night as well as of seasons or lunar phases.

The Circadian Rhythms (from the Latin: “around the day”) are “internal clocks” that have a 24-hour pattern of operation. One of the most important functions they fulfil resides in presiding over the alternation between sleep and wakefulness, appetite, metabolism, heart rate, hormonal activity, blood pressure and body temperature by releasing specific hormones/neurotransmitters. Circadian rhythms have been known since ancient times. According to the Traditional Chinese Medicine and Taoist principles, Wei Qi energy (the protective energy) flows through the Yang meridians during daytime and through the Yin meridians during the night, thus flowing through the meridians of Organs and Viscera every two hours.

Accordingly, by applying such knowledge to everyday life, it can be inferred that during the night hours body and muscles relax, metabolism slows down, breathing dilates, the heart restores its natural rate, and the stomach takes a break from the digestive process (at least in principle!). This is the best time for the skin: while the blood during daytime is busy pumping the various parts of the body, at night it circulates plentiful through the cutaneous microcirculation and delivers warmth and nourishment. This state of well-being promotes cellular exchange; it is the most suitable moment to set deep, regenerating, anti-age, brightening, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities into motion. In fact, during the day, when energy concentrates in the other parts of the body, the skin needs hydration and protection from weather agents, pollution, solar radiation, and stress. A similar mechanism applies to hair whose growth is influenced by melatonin.

That is why the concept of beauty sleep our grandmothers talked about has some solid scientific basis. Insufficient hours of sleep, a hectic life pace, night work hours, stressful weekends act as a kind of constant mini-jet lag altering our natural biological rhythms and negatively affecting the appearance of skin and hair that will look duller. By means of special cells located near the inner surface of the retina, daylight is detected and transmitted to a particular area of the hypothalamus where the Circadian Clock resides. Darkness and light regulate the release of hormones that predispose to relaxation or activity through very complex mechanisms.

The passing of time relentlessly impacts our organism. Science can help us sustain this natural process in a correct way to slow down the ageing of skin and hair.

The skin

The skin is a deep organ that tells, reveals and hides. When indulged by a good cosmetic, it can send messages to the brain which, in turn, responds by sending messages back to the skin.

The skin (integumentary system) is the largest organ of the human body and an extremely complex system presiding over several functions crucial to mankind’s survival and their correct interaction with the outside environment. The main functions the skin fulfills are the following:

  • Cyto-production: based on a 28-day differentiation cycle, new cells of the skin layer, the so-called keratinocytes, are produced in the basal layer of the epidermis and reach the corneal layer where, after transforming into corneocytes, they are eventually eliminated;
  • Keratin synthesis: epithelial cells produce keratin on a regular basis, also in the nail bed and hair follicles.
  • Perspiration: a process essential for maintaining the body homeostasis and allowing the sweat glands to excrete hydrophilic catabolites.
  • Sebogenesis: the sebaceous glands found in the skin produce sebum for protecting and lubricating the skin, besides excreting lipophilic catabolites.
  • Synthesis of Vitamin D3: a lypophilic vitamin paramount to calcium homeostasis, it also has anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating properties; from provitamin it is converted into vitamin D3 in the skin through sun exposure.
  • Melanosynthesis: melanocytes, the epithelial cells of the epidermis, produce melanin which is responsbile for the pigmentation of the skin at rest and after sun exposure.
  • Tactile sensitivity: found in the skin, Merkel cells ensure the sensory interaction with the outside environment.
  • Immune functions: found in the skin, Langerhans cells are cells of the immune system fulfilling antigen-presenting functions.

Accordingly, mounting evidence of the “skin intelligence” is sustained by the network of activities the skin’s healthy state ensures; it is thus evident that such “intelligence” and the interconnections highlighted are something cosmetologists and aroma therapists with a serious scientific approach are to reckon with.

The relationship betwen skin and psyche from a PNEI (PsychoNeuroEndocrineImmunology) perspective

Human anatomy and physiology prove that the brain and the peripheral nervous system are continually influenced by external stimuli; this means that the production of nervous connections and nervous cells does not cease because of growth, indeed it is a lifelong process, thereby triggering an ongoing neurogenesis activity.

Several tests have found that sensory stimulation (skin touching, massage and rubbing) leads to accelerated somatic trophism and enhanced neuronal plasticity which, in turn, reduces the production of cortisol which seems ascribable to the increase in neuropeptide IGF-1 (insuline-like growth factor).

PNEI gained further momentum with the discovery of epigenetics: while the rule of molecular biology that the genetic code tends to remain unchanged across generations and the fact it is subject to minor random mutations is true, it is equally true that emotions, behaviours, socio-environmental context and eating habits may modulate the DNA coding and expression. And while the DNA structure is set, its genic expression is other than unchangeable. In fact, our life is continuously influenced by a multitude of messages.

Therefore, PNEI investigates the relationship between psyche and biological systems, proving that stress and states of mind can affect human health. Within this science, the bidirectional connections involving brain and gut have been given major prominence. It has long been known that the digestive tube does not merely preside over digestion; indeed, a potent PNEI has been recently discovered according to which there exists a “gut brain” totaling some 500 million cells which produces neurotransmitters connecting it with the cranial brain.

The connection between sensory perceptions and cerebral well-being was first investigated in the Nineties. The plasma level of the immune system of a few volunteers was measured after they (trial group) had inhaled essential oils vs the control groups (exposed to less intense olfactory stimuli): the result highlighted statistically significant modulation differences of the immune system. Following this early evidence, special attention began being paid to the formulation of innovative cosmetic preparations such as those tapping into olfactory massage for stimulating the dismantling of subcutaneous fat accumulation by using the essential oil of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). This prompted the birth of neurocosmetics which investigates the feelings and sensations consumers experience during and after the application of a cosmetic product.

PNEI is most certainly a major breakthrough on the way to a holistic vision of the being. However, let us look back: throughout human history, religion, philosophy and science have tried to provide a harmonious, unifying vision of everything, often landing the following result: taking care of the human body as well as of the spirit (or of emotions from a non-religious perspective) is crucial for the sake of therapeutic success. The circle representing Tao and evoking holism has been identified by neurosciences to encompass endorfins and enkephalins, the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, cytokines and hormones, skin and brain with their shared embryological origin, growth factors and inhibitors, besides the sensory organs. These breakthroughs pave the way to extraordinary dermo-cosmetologic headways and such openness mostly stems from the fact that the skin globally represents a nervous-endocrine-immune organ of paramount importance, thus falling, in its own right, in the communication network of the 3 main systems.

The skin is the mirror of the soul and the eco of the mind evidences the internal workings and reflection of health; it symbolises the external projection of a person’s intimate, psychic and physical configuration.

Skin and nose connection

A study conducted by S. Koyama* and T. Heinbockel**, published in the International Journal of Molecular Science, The effects of essential oils and terpenes in relation to their routes of intake and application, describes the main routes of administration of essential oils such as topical application, inhalation and oral administration. When it comes to the skin and the digestive system, the chemical components of essential oils can activate the -aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the transient receptor potential channels (TRP), which have a permeability to cations (Na+ and Ca +). Instead, when it comes to the olfactory system, the chemical components activate the olfactory receptors. Here the GABA receptors and the TRP channels play an important role because signals are transferred to the olfactory bulb and the brain. Recent studies have showed that the receptor OR2AT4 of the human olfactory system is also expressed in the skin. Activation of OR2AT4 stimulates cellular proliferation and migration. The activation test of OR2AT4 has been run with sandal essential oil. OR2AT4 is also expressed in the outermost membrane of the root of the hair follicles. For instance the stimulation of OR2AT4 activated by sandal reduces cellular apoptosis and favours hair growth and longevity.

Another receptor of the human olfactory system, OR51E2, has been found in the melanocytes of the human skin. The bond with this receptor is -ionone found in rose essential oil. Activation of OR51E2 promoted by -ionone can stimulate the synthesis of melanin (treatment of hyperpigmentation and proliferative disorders of hyperpigmentation).

Human olfactory receptors OR2A4/7 and OR51B5 are also expressed in the human skin, however the two receptors are differently located in the skin: OR2A4/7 is expressed in the keratinocytes in the suprabasal layer (spinous layer) and in the melanocytes in the basal layer, whereas OR51B5 is only expressed in the keratinocytes of the spinous layer, but not in the basal layer, so that each has a different impact: OR2A4/7 stimulates cytokinesis, cellular migration, keratinocytes regeneration, phosphorylation of AKTP (protein kinase B) and Chk-2 (Checkpoint kinase) and the release of Il-1, whereas OR51B5 stimulates cellular migration, phosphorylation of Hsp27, AMPK1, and p38MAKPK and the release of IL-6. Said studies have showed that while there are differences in the expression location and functions of these olfactory receptors, they all equally stimulate cellular proliferation and migration when activated by an aroma-odorant binding agent.

The same studies showed that the essential oil of Copaiba, rich in b-caryophyllene, improves the healing process of wounds. On the other hand, it is not clear whether b-cariophyllene impacts the concerned olfactory receptor. Studies have proved that the topical application of b-cariophyllene does not affect the olfactory system. These two studies suggest that the application of b-cariophyllene improves reepithelization by an increased conversion of the stem cells of the hair follicles bulb into multipotent stem cells and promotes their migration towards the basal layer and, accordingly, towards the wound bed.

Therefore, not only do essences activate olfactory receptors but non olfactory receptors as well. In short, multiple channels contribute to delivering the effects of essential oils.


The number-one enemy of well-being. What is stress? While it is neither pain, nor anguish or shock, it is the adaptive response of the organism to psychological and physiological aggression factors. Stressors may be classified as: living beings (micro-organisms), injuries (ulceration, hemorrhage), nervous (exertion, pain), and psychological (positive or negative emotions). The way stress affects the skin varies from person to person: usually the main signs are linked to imbalanced secretions, extreme dryness or, viceversa, increased seborrhea, hypersensitivity and intolerance, hair loss and scalp irritation as well as early skin ageing. From a neurovegetative standpoint, when faced with stressors or danger, reactions are usually two: attack or escape. The impossibility to react triggers off tensions that result in the hyperproduction of free radicals, thus causing as much damage as to affect the cells and their membranes, including mitochondria and nucleus, as well as the cellular DNA. In a nutshell, stress may be a no-return emotional stake.

The skin, therefore, is an extension of the brain and together with its appendages (hairs, hair, nails, hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands), it plays an important role in collaborating with the brain, the cardiovascular system (thermo-regulation) and the lymphatic system (immune system).

“The nervous system is a buried part of the skin, or alternatively the skin may be regarded as an exposed portion of the nervous system” Ashley Montagu, Touching, The Human Significance of the Skin.

Any skin manifestation is an indicator of an imbalance another system is faced with and, one way or another, as it affects the nervous system, the skin is equally affected.

Rationally speaking, we are led into thinking that if we treat the skin with substances that can interact with the brain, thus allowing us to feel emotions, we can treat the single systems while reckoning with the overall complexity of the organism.

Ar|The products

AR|THE is a project encompassing several skin care and application levels:

Face products

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Tested at 1% 


    • Skin elasticity
    • Skin compactness
    • Skin roughness
    • Skin radiance
    • Skin complexion evenness

    Inci: Lavandula Hybrida Oil, Citrus Sinensis (Orange) Peel Oil, Boswellia Carterii Resin Extract, Abies Sibirica Oil, Piper Nigrum (Pepper) Fruit Oil, Helichrysum Italicum Flower Oil, Rosa Damascena Flower Oil


      Tested at 1% 


        • Skin moisturization

        • Skin compactness

        Inci: Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Oil, Citrus Limon (Lemon) Peel Oil, Cinnamomum Camphora (Camphor) Bark Oil, Helichrysum Italicum Flower Oil, Origanum Vulgare Leaf Oil



            • Dermopurifying

            Inci: Cymbopogon Citratus Leaf Oil, Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Oil, Pelargonium Graveolens Flower Oil, Michelia Alba Flower Oil, Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Oil, Rosa Damascena Flower Oil

              Body products

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              Tested at 1% 


                • reduce localized adiposity

                Inci: Citrus Limon Peel Oil, Lavandula Angustifolia Flower/Leaf/Stem Oil, Citrus Paradisi Peel Oil, Piper Nigrum Fruit Oil, Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaf Oil, Thymus Vulgaris Flower/Leaf Oil

                  LIPOLYTIC EFFICACY

                  • Local adiposity visibility (clinical evaluation)


                  4% of Subcutaneous Fat Thickness
                  No real changes In the group treated with the placebo


                    Hair products

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                    Essential Oils and application

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                    Bitter orange

                    With a top note, the oil is produced by cold pressing of the orange peel.
                    Key word: awakening

                    Chemical composition: 94% monoterpenes (limonene), 3% esters (terpene esters), 2% alcohols, 1% aliphatic aldehydes

                    Dermopurifyer: excellent for mixed to oily, dull, acne prone skin. Helpful in reducing wrinkles, it regenerates and firms the skin, removes impurities, softens hard and calloused skin. Ideal in the treatment of early stage to stagnating cellulite, it performs a lipolytic action. Hydrating, purifying, detoxifying, it also has scalp sebum-regulating properties.
                    It also performs a relaxing action.

                    Black pepper

                    The oil is extracted from the fruits. Note is base.
                    Key word: Acceleration

                    Composition: 60% monoterpenes (limonene, beta pinene, sabinene), 30% sesquiterpenes (beta cariophyllene), 5% chetons, 4% alcohols

                    The quintessential lipolytic: effective against obesity, severe cellulite and localised adiposities. It stimulates blood and lymphatic circulation and facilitates the elimination of organic toxins. Moreover, it tones the muscles.

                    Powerful stimulant, it attenuates fatigue, laziness and sluggishness. Aphrodisiac, it boosts concentration and alertness. It opens up to change and helps quickly adjust.


                    With a base note, the essential oil is extracted from cones and twigs.
                    Key word: stopping

                    Chemical composition: 80% monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, delta3-carene, beta-pinene), 10% alcohols (terpineol, sabinol, cedrol), 5% sesquiterpenes (cadinene), 4% esters (terpinyl acetate).

                    Used for the treatment of greasy to oily and acne-prone skin. Antiseptic and astringent, it makes a gentle skin purifyer. Characterised by repairing and anti-ageing properties, it is recommended for mature skin, capillary fragility. It also favours the healing process of wounds.

                    Improving blood circulation, it prevents the repeat onset of cellulite and is ideal after a lipolytic, draining treatment. It avoids fluid stagnation, slows overperspiration and prevents the onset of bad odours. A scalp purifyer, it cleanses and deodorizes hair.

                    Effectively combating anxiety, agitation, stress and nervous tension, it inhibits any form of extreme manifestation and fosters calm. Avoiding distraction and flights of fancy, it boosts concentration, attention and focus. Helpful in slowing the pace, it helps keep panic attacks, fits of rage and crying under control. Delivers comfort and well-being in case of nervous breakdown. Recommended to people who easily lose temper. Excellent for people who can never say no or are easily influenced. It promotes self-control; extremely helpful in case of sudden crying, sustained anger, overexertion, very strict dieting. Ideal for people who always go the extra mile and need to take a break, also for heavy eaters. A transition oil, it is partiicularly helpful in case of bereavement or separation.


                    With a base note, the essential oil is extracted from the bark.
                    Key word: fire

                    Chemical composition: 85% aromatic aldehydes (cinnamaldehyde), 5% phenols and phenol ethers (eugenol), 5% sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene), 4% alcohols (linalol).

                    Thanks to the large amount of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon is an essence stimulating the nervous system. Characterized by disruptive energy, it is a mood enhancer, unleashes desire to translate ideas into actions. It unravels psychological and energy stumbling blocks, maladaptive thoughts, uproots victim complex. A natural aphrodisiac, it arouses passion and desire. Fire of life, it eliminates anything extraneous to one’s own holy garden.

                    Damask rose

                    Damask rose

                    Extracted by steam distillation, it is a versatile, safe oil.
                    Key word: divine.

                    Composition: 60% alcohols (citronellol, geraniol, nerol, linalol, farnesol), 5% monoterpenes, 5% esters, 2% rose oxide, 1% sesquiterpenes, 1% aliphatic aldehydes, 1% phenols and phenolic ethers, 25% others among which sulphur compounds.

                    A trait all essential oils share, global working range is particularly evident when it comes to the rose: every single gesture performed on the body and for the body with the aid of this essential oil simultaneously reaches into the psychical sphere and viceversa: therefore skin care also provides gentle, consoling care for the heart and the mind. Rose-scented psychotherapy aimed at alleviating depression and discomfort will bless the skin with harmony and freshness. Just one drop will trigger off the blend’s action. Fit to every skin type, it is a source of harmony, purity and vitality: regulates over- and underproduction of sebum, cellular tissue detoxicant, fights wrinkles and ageing, attenuates redness from couperose and skin inflammations, eczema and infections. Topical application of rose oil relieves anxiety, helps overcome sadness and bitterness. Inhaled at moments of melancholy, it unravels the knots that stifle smile. Rose is a comprehensive oil with both a sacred and sensual side to it, the queen of sensuality. A few studies carried out on the effects Damask rose essential oil has on the skin structures have found it performs a deeply hydrating and anti-microbial action.


                    With a middle note, the essential oil is extracted from the flowers.
                    Key word: balance

                    Chemical composition: 85% MT alcohols (citronellol, geraniol, linalol), 10% esters (cytronellyl formate), 4% monoterpenes.

                    Its balancing and hydrating properties have it stand out as suitable for all skin types. Light, antiseptic, astringent; performing a sebum-balancing action, it suits oily to mixed and acne-prone skin. Anti-wrinkles and anti-oxidant, it firms the tissues, slows hair growth, strengthens venous walls and is excellent against couperose

                    It clears clogged pores, has a beneficial action on psoriasis, eczema and dermatitis, treats skin rash, blisters and eruptions. It stimulates cellular renewal and preserves hydration. Helpful also in case of greasy and dry hair.

                    A mood enhancer, it provides renewed energy and dispels anxiety, balances emotions and tones down over-emotionalism. Triggering off desire to express oneself, it nurtures imagination, intuition, creativity and inspires calm.


                    With a middle note, the essential oil is extracted from the root.
                    Key word: reaction

                    Chemical composition: 60% sesquiterpenes (beta-sesquiphellandrene and zingiberene), 20% monoterpenes (phellandrene and camphene), 10% alcohols, 5% aliphatic aldehydes, 2% esters, 2% ketones

                    Antiseptic, healing, it helps treat acne and wounds. Performing a lipolytic action, it is recommended in the treatment of cellulite. It tones up muscles and tissues. Ideal for dull skin.

                    Hair treatment: to fight hair loss and stimulate regrowth. A nerve tonic, it sharpens concentration, unleashes action and replenishes energy. It prompts the nervous system’s response. Ideal in case of nervous breakdown, enfeeblement and weariness. It improves memory and sharpens memories. It unleashes the desire for success and achievement and restores personal determination. It sharpens the senses.


                    With a top note, the essential oil is extracted from the peel.
                    Key word: break through

                    Chemical composition: 99% monoterpenes (limonene, myrcene, pinene), 1% others (teoterpineol-4).

                    A dermopurifyer and an excellent antiseptic, it proves very helpful for the treatment of greasy to oily skin. A tissue decongestant and firming agent, it protects the blood vessels. A draining and lypolitic agent, it stimulates the lymphatic system, promotes the elimination of excess fluids and breaks down fat buildup. Ideal for the treatment of cellulite and overweight, it tones up muscles and firms tissues. It impacts the hypothalamus by contributing to regulating the need for food. It relieves muscle contraction and copes with stress. It balances the nervous system and provides effective support in the treatment of depression, nervous breakdown and acute stress. A mood enhancer, it has revitalizing properties and reduces the recovery time following sustained effort. It fights physical and psychological addiction.


                    The oil is extracted by distillation of the flower heads. A base note, the scent is warm and enveloping.
                    Key word: Light – Trauma

                    Composition: 60% monoterpenes (pinenes, selinenes), 12% monoterpenic esters (neryl acetate), 12% sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene), 12% diketones (italidiones), 2% alcohols, 1% oxides.

                    An extremely effective anti-inflammatory, it greatly regenerates the skin. Featuring excellent soothing, softening and anti-oxidant properties, it ensures deep hydration and brightens dull ageing skin. In-vitro studies have been carried out about Helichrysum essential oil inhibiting collagenase and elastase.


                    Extracted from resin, the oil is a base note.
                    Key word: elevation. Precious balm for body and mind.

                    Composition: 80% monoterpenes (limonene, alfapinene, betamircene), paracymene, 15% sesquiterpenes (caryophillene), 2% alcohols, 2% oxides (caryiophillene oxide), 1% acids, esters and diterpenes

                    Characterized by excellent healing and protective properties, it promotes epithelial repair, protects the skin from external agents, prevents ageing, slows down the onset of wrinkles and restores firmness and elasticity. Moisturizing and nourishing, it eliminates skin thickening and spots. Extremely effective in case of cuts and scars, it prevents crepey skin and fights infections, attenuates skin age signs, hydrates the superficial skin structures and prevents peeling skin. The strength of incense as resin resides in its repairing properties.

                    Psychically speaking, inhaling incense stimulates the production of GABA and serotonin that contrasts depression and relieves anxiety. It brings harmony and serenity, helps overcome crises, depression and stress, facilitates open-mindedness, promotes peace of mind and fosters new ideas.


                    With a top note, the essential oil is produced from cold pressing of the peel.
                    Key word: activate

                    Chemical composition: 96,5% monoterpenes (limonene, alphapinene, betapinene), 1% aliphatic aldehydes (citronellal), 1% sesquiterpenes, 1% alcohols.

                    Like lavender, it is a multi-purpose oil performing a broad range of beneficial actions on the body. Known to have astringent, anti-toxic and healing properties, it also effectively clarifies the skin and helps prevent the onset of ageing signs. It strengthens brittle nails and combats dandruff. It boosts energy burdened by stress and weariness, favours concentration, comprehension and memory. It favours intellectual activities and also has a warm side to it bringing joy to work. A few lemon drops added to a bath release long-lasting vibrant energy. Ideal for people in need of relaxation and for replenishing energy.


                    With a top note, the essential oil is extracted from leaves, flowers and stalks
                    Key word: freedom

                    Chemical composition: 75% aliphatic aldehydes (citral, neral), 20% alcohols (geraniol), 2% monoterpenes, 1% free acids.

                    A potent oil for purifying the household energy while dispelling despair, disappointment and apathy. Aiding people on the way to recovery or purification, it helps let go of old beliefs and pent-up, stagnating energy. It urges to confidently carry on and undertake a journey of change. It contributes to renewing physical, spiritual and emotional energy.

                    It has beneficial effects on the skin by performing an antiacne, anticellulite, itch-relieving action.

                    Citral effectively interacts with the immune system by reducing the sensation of heat and redness ensuing from inflammations.

                    Matricaria chamomilla

                    With a middle note, the essential oil is extracted from the flower heads.
                    Key word: calm

                    Chemical composition: 75% esters (angelates), 5% oxides (1,8-cineol), 5% alcohols (farnesol, nerolidol, alpha-terpineol), 5% ketones, 3% sesquiterpenes (chamazulene and caryophyllene), 3% monoterpenes (sabinene), 2% aliphatic aldehydes

                    Known to perform an effective bacteriostatic action combined with anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties, it delivers a broad-spectrum, effective action against fistulae, wounds and skin infections. Chamazulene is the triterpene enhancing the calming, soothing, anti-redness action on the skin. It relieves itch and treats inflammations.

                    Emotionally, chamomile is the ultimate natural tranquillizer and also performs a calming action against anxiety. Effectively combating anger and agitation, it fosters the ability to be present in the now with a mind to making the most of the beauty that now moments have in store. It helps to breathe, get air and legitimate one’s inner space.


                    With a middle note, the essential oil is extracted from the flowers.

                    Chemical composition: a pinenene, camphene, limonene, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, caryophyllene epoxide, β-endesmol, humulene, linalool, a-, 13-, unknown sesquiterpenes.

                    The essential oil of magnolia is known to be a neurostimulator, capable of stimulating neuronal connections.
                    It helps focus on the meaning of life, things and the decisions we make.
                    An outstanding antistress, it stimulates an overall sense of relaxation, reduces stress and anxiety.
                    The people who usually benefit most are “aggressive, robotic” individuals with a hectic, fast-paced lifestyle juggling numberless commitments and obligations; they seem to have lost track of what they are up to and the meaning of their life.

                    It gives the skin a soft, silky feel, relieves muscular tension and smooths face lines. Revitalizing, anti-age and hydrating, it gives a pleasurable sensation of freshness and has beautiful decongestant effects when used as a compress. Anti-oxidant.


                    With a base note, the essential oil is extracted from resin.
                    Key word: crossroads, leading

                    Chemical composition: 50% sesquiterpenes (furanoeudesmadiene, elemene, copaene, curzerene, linestrene), 40% alcohols (cardinol, myrrh alcohols), 5% ketones, 2% phenols and phenol ethers, 2% aliphatic aldehydes.

                    Myrrh symbolises irresistible attraction, yearning and getting over it.

                    A precious balm for tissue integrity, it reduces sebum secretion, removes impurities and has excellent anti-inflammatory properties. It stimulates the cell renewal and has good anti-ageing properties. A helpful antiseptic in case of acne and dermatitis. Nourishing and improving skin suppleness, it protects from the aggression of external agents. Firming and healing, it is highly recommended for the treatment of stretch marks. Intensely nourishing, it preserves skin suppleness. Revitalising in case of brittle, dull and damaged hair.

                    It combats stress, anxiety and agitation, boosts responsiveness faced with unwanted events and effectively contrasts shyness, submissiveness and surrender. It fights apathy, ataraxia and lack of interest. It stimulates the amygdala, the pineal gland and the hypothalamus. It contrasts agitation, hypersexuality, anorgasmia.

                    It favours meditation and concentration, helps get a clear mind and reduce mental confusion often leading to inaction, helps overcome spiritual development stumbling blocks, restore the connection between body and spirit…shows the way at times of confusion.


                    With a top note, the essential oil is extracted from the flower heads.
                    Key word: the fighter

                    Chemical composition: 63% phenols and phenol ethers (carvacrol, thymol), 30% monoterpenes (terpinene, paracymene), 2% alcohols, 3% sesquiterpenes, 1% oxides

                    Stemming from Greek, the name oregano means “Splendid mount” which is probably ascribable to the beautiful flowers dotting the hills and slopes the plant is native to. Since ancient times and in past centuries China, it has been known to have extremely effective antiseptic and antiviral properties. Emotionally, it feels balancing. In addition, it attenuates symptoms associated with hypersensitivity, allergy, edginess and stress. An oil to be used carefully.


                    With a top note, the essential oil is extracted from leaves and twigs.
                    Key word: consolidating.

                    Chemical composition:
                    55% monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, camphene) 15% esters (bornyl acetate), 14% ketones (verbenone, camphor) 10% alcohols (borneol), 5% oxide.

                    Chemical composition:
                    50% oxides (1,8 cineol), 35% monoterpenes (limonene, pinene, camphene), 10% ketones (camphor), 2% sesquiterpenes, 1% alcohols, 1% esters

                    Culpeper defined it “an energy boost for the body” and this is probably its number one distinctive trait. Outstandingly reinvigorating for the central nervous system and stimulating the surrenal glands, it helps combat body and mind fatigue, provides major aid during convalescence and at times of stress and weariness. Beneficial to acne-prone skin, sebum overproduction, it improves microcirculation. In association with lemon, pepper, grapefruit and orange, it is used for treating cellulite. It also has hair strengthening and purifying, sebum-balancing effects.

                    Rosemary stimulates the blood flow, a major carrier of mindfulness; therefore, it is the essential oil boosting awareness of the self and the body, clarity of mind, balance and confidence. It purifies energy flows from emotional imbalance while instilling fresh, vibrant energy.


                    With a middle note, the essential oil is extracted from the flower heads.
                    Key word: revealing

                    Chemical composition: 75% esters (linalyl acetate, neryl acetate), 15% alcohols (lynalol, sclareol), 5% sesquiterpenes (gemracrene), 0,05% oxides.

                    Excellent for cell regeneration, helpful in slowing the signs of ageing because it regulates the endocrine system. It protects blood vessels and is recommended for the treatment of couperose. Balancing sebum, it is excellent for oily skin and acne, soothes inflammations and is ideally used for hard, chapped skin. It improves blood circulation and protects the integrity of blood vessels. It favours fluids and toxins drainage, protects and hydrates the skin. A purifying treatment for greasy hair and dandruff, it strengthens hair and provides a lovely remedy against hair loss.

                    Revitalising and stimulating, it proves helpful in the treatment of anxious depressive syndromes, dispels tension and helps the body rebalance energy. Aiding stressout, nervous, distressed people, it is perfect for elderly people who lack motivation and hypersensitive individuals affected with neurovegetative disorders. Characterized by calming properties, it helps slacken muscle contraction and improve relaxation. It restores balance and emotional stability, instils confidence to make the right decisions. It attenuates fear and combats paranoids. It sustains the mind, reduces anxiety and stimulates dreams while helping remember.

                    Siberian fir

                    The oil is extracted by needle distillation.
                    Key word: energy – strength – stamina

                    Composition: 90% monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta 3-carene, camphene), 20% esters (bornyl acetate), 1% sesquiterpenes (humulene).

                    It has a very interesting action on the respiratory rhythm by increasing the oxygen level of blood and, accordingly, of tissues too. The high percentage of bornyl acetate has it perform a whitening action and inhibit the tirosinase enzyme which, by catalyzing the reaction of melanin production, is responsible for skin pigmentation.

                    Tea tree

                    With a top note, the oil is extracted from the leaves.
                    Key word: cleanse, disinfect

                    Chemical composition: 44% alcohols (terpineol-4), 45% monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, terpinenes), 5% oxides (1,8 cineol), 4% sesquiterpenes, 1% acids.

                    Aside from Viridiflorene, nothing would ever lead into thinking that Tea tree oil has a potent antimicrobial action; probably its underlying efficacy derives from the very synergistic action of its numerous components. Toxicity-free, reduced aggressiveness, great tolerability and elevated anti-microbial properties may lead one into believing they have come across a versatile oil. Anti-bacterial, anti-microbial and anti-fungal action: applied for dermatological purposes, safe on mucous membranes and skin, it is equally effective on keratin layers such as the nail layer; its action is particularly effective against nail fungal degeneration to treat which no other antifungal treatment would do to effectively achieve recovery. In this case the oil is to be applied undiluted.

                    Besides its antimicrobial action, tea tree oil effectively boosts the immune system and has an overall invigorating effect.

                    Thyme ct Thymol

                    With a base note, the essential oil is extracted from the flower heads.
                    Key word: courage

                    Chemical composition: 55% phenols and phenol ethers (thymol), 30% monoterpenes (paracymene), 5% alcohols (borneol), 5% sesquiterpenes, 2% oxides.

                    Applied topically, thyme promotes stagnant fluids drainage and improves blood microcirculation which delivers a beneficial thermal effect and tissue detoxification.

                    An essence of mind and courage, it favours concentration and memory and helps overcome fear and shyness. Beneficial to cope with depleting mental and physical resources and overwhelming anguish.

                    True lavender

                    The oil is extracted by distillation of the flower heads.
                    Key word: aid

                    Composition: 46% esters (linalyl acetate, lavandulyl acetate), 37% alcohols (lynalol), 5% sesquiterpenes (betacaryophillene), 4% monoterpenes (limonene, mircene), 2% oxides (1,8-cineol, terpineol, borneol), 1% aromatic aldehydes, 1% aliphatic aldehydes (citral), 1% chetons (camphor), 1% phenols and phenolic ethers, 0,5% lactones and coumarins.

                    It is an extremely complex oil thanks to the multiple chemical families it is composed of, which accounts for its versatility. Lavender oil’s properties on skin are truly wide-ranging: thanks to the potent antiseptic and tissue regenerating power, lavender provides a comprehensive, fast-acting remedy in treating anything in the ‘dermatosis’ category.

                    Sebum-rebalancing, cells detoxifying and bloodstream stimulant.

                    It acts on the psychical sphere thanks to its unique scent of spiritual cleanliness and light-hearted freedom. It brings calm, clarity and mental balance to the people prone to taking emotions to extremes, distressed by recurring thoughts, depression, anguish and fears affecting night sleep and decision-making. Its potential in regenerating the nervous system is recognised and widely applied in psychotherapy.